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    一潭池水觀盛世恢弘——讀《昆明池歌》有感

    發布時間:2017-04-19點擊數:4210

     

    吳丹

    我要說的昆明池,并不是漢武帝在長安西南開挖出的那一個復制品,那一個湖早已布滿歷史的“劫灰”,而這一個真正的昆明湖——滇池,它是自然的饋贈,人間的奇跡,任時間流逝依然長葆青春、風采依舊。

    關于昆明池,我們知道的有多少?它不僅僅只是我們輿圖上的一片藍色的印記,也不僅僅是當我們身臨其境時面前那廣袤無窮的水國;它也不只調節一方氣候,作為生物的家園;因為無比的美貌,它一直以來還是眾多文學作品謳歌的對象。而在浩如煙海的題詠中,我最欣賞明嘉靖六年時出任云南巡撫的顧應祥寫的名作《昆明池歌》。其詩全文如下:

    昆明池歌

    (明)顧應祥

    昆明池,延袤數百里。

    千山萬山直至昆明來,諸山之水匯于此。

    相傳其水顛倒流,滇池之名由此始。

    左有金馬山,右有碧雞峰,

    彌漫浩瀚渺無際。但見洪濤巨浪日夕連蒼空。

    青天忽驚白日起霹靂,震撼蛟龍宮。

    天吳水怪,九首八足。

    不可以名狀,時復出沒于其中。

    有時波恬風浪息,一碧萬頃開青銅。

    其廣也如此,胡為乎不在九域之內,不得與五湖七澤相爭雄?

    神禹治水跡不到,穆王八駿難為窮。

    漢武鑿池徒仿佛,王褒將命何匆匆?

    唐宋以來各僭據,聲教不與中國通。

    天開景運圣人出,一掃海內群邪空。

    五服之外更五服,俛首授命歸提封。

    侏離椎髻之類,吾不知其幾千幾萬種,禮樂不異車書同。

    眇余生當全盛日,觀風兩度乘青驄。

    古來多少豪杰士,局于偏安之世,不得一洗塊壘胸。

    百年過眼一彈指,得此勝跡真奇逢!

    振衣獨立太華頂,狂歌目斷孤飛鴻。

    這是一首歌行體古詩,句式忽長忽短,變化萬千。詩人顧應祥,是明代弘治年間進士,在嘉靖六年(1527年),首任云南巡撫,后彈劾罷官,后又被任用,再撫云南,此首《昆明池歌》就寫于顧應祥再次擔任云南巡撫的任內。而與大部分對昆明池的題詠不同——相較常見的絕句律詩的篇幅,這是一首長詩。長詩最大的特點就是它有著更為深厚的信息含量,可以盡情從容的排兵布陣、縱橫馳騁,而絕句本身體式纖巧,律詩限于聲律,不如歌行體揮灑自由,包容廣大。此外,這首詩在時間上有著極為廣闊的跨度,從世質民淳的遠古到詩人所處的當下,如黃河千里走東海,滾滾而來。內容描寫則先從目下之景入,接著俯仰古今,又回歸現實,形成了一個美妙的環路。

    “昆明池,延袤數百里,千山萬山直至昆明來,諸山之水匯于此。相傳其水顛倒流,滇池之名從此始。”詩一開始便如巨筆橫空,勾勒出昆明池的形勝——它是千山萬山之水匯聚而成,有著涵匯萬端的氣勢。又闡釋了“滇池”之名的由來:因其水顛倒而流而成名的奇景(晉常璩《華陽國志·南中志》:“下流淺狹,如倒流,故曰滇池”)。

    “左有金馬山,右有碧雞峰。” (《漢書·郊祀志下》:“或言益州有金馬、碧雞之神,可蘸祭而致。)”“金馬”、“”碧雞“,以前也屬于古人崇拜的“青雀”、“黃龍”一樣的祥瑞,現在已作為昆明的象征了——楊慎《云南山川志》:“金馬山,在東二十五里,西到碧雞山,中隔滇池。山不甚高,而綿亙西南數十里。”值得注意的是,全詩不是一韻到底,之前是“里”、“此”、“始”押韻,從這一句開始轉為“東”部韻。“東”韻氣勢上比較雄渾,于是全詩也進入輕快豪邁的步調之中了:“彌漫浩瀚渺無際。但見洪濤巨浪日夕連蒼空。而“白日霹靂”、“天吳水怪”等語,頗有奇幻色彩,亦如楚騷里的精怪在作祟,使全詩雄中帶奇。”至于風平浪靜時候,萬頃水面如一張巨大的銅鏡,這種比喻也極為形象貼切,宛如工筆畫一般。

    壯美的奇景盡在目前,而詩人的豪邁不是平鋪直敘的,又將話鋒靈巧地一轉,提出了疑問:如此美妙絕倫的山水,為什么不在九域之類,從而得以與五湖七澤去一較高下呢?應該為此地鳴不平啊,此地在歷史上有如此多的不如意:這里是大禹治水跡不曾見到的;而周穆王雖然有八駿去四方游歷卻也難以窮盡此間之景;漢武仿照此昆明池而造的雖然稍傳形似,卻早已經被歷史湮沒;而王褒奉命詔而欲來尋求“金馬碧雞”的祥瑞,卻因匆匆辭世,頓成遺憾。不僅如此,唐宋以來,還因割據而隔斷一方,教化所不能到。種種不平之氣溢于言表,但這是先抑后揚的寫法,因為接下來再不似之前了,如今盛世承平,一派各民族共同進步繁榮的景象,“禮樂不異車書同”,即使風俗不一樣,但都和諧的共處于于治世之間。值得肯定的是,詩人顧應祥作為云南巡撫,任上也是頗有政聲的,他在此詩之中極力謳歌的和諧文治之情景,也是我們今天所珍視、所守護的,所以此詩并不過時,在今天仍然具有豐富的人文內涵,它以詩意的語言,盛贊繁榮與和諧,“治世之音安以樂,其政和”,良有以也! 

    在抒發了躬逢盛世的興感之后,詩人又開始對自我個體的思考:他兩次來云南,兩次見此奇景,不似很多偏安王朝的不得志的豪杰,他因為海清河晏,天下統一,了無遺憾,又對此雄奇壯闊的自然景色,于是徹底掃清了胸中的塊壘,將要如古時高士一般,去登臨送目,領略“目送歸鴻,手揮五弦”的神韻。這同樣有對當今我們生活的啟示,這種生活態度無疑近乎“詩意的棲居”,我們想要通過人生藝術化和詩意化來抵制科學技術所帶來的個性泯滅以及生活的刻板化和碎片化,那么何不朗誦此詩,去瞻仰字里行間擁有的不滅光彩,去品味古人處世的卓識睿智呢?

    一曲《昆明池歌》已矣,時代在推移,世事在變幻,不變的是我們內心對美景和盛世永遠的瞻仰和頌贊!

    (作者系云南民族大學學生,本文為2016“我喜愛的云南詩詞”征文活動選登)

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